Clare Griffin on Histories of Medicine, Trade, and Translation in the Early Modern Russian Empire

undefinedundefinedundefined


Click on the images below to open the gallery and view them full-size.


Welcome to the eleventh episode of the Global History Podcast, which is also the next installment in our series on ‘Global Histories of Health, Medicine, and Disease in the Early Modern World’.

Today, we’d like to welcome Clare Griffin, Assistant Professor in the History, Philosophy and Religious Studies Department at Nazarbayev University in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.* In her own words, Professor Griffin ‘is a historian of science with interests in practical knowledge, commodity exchange, and translation in the early modern global world’, focusing on Russia and its global connections. Her editorial work includes co-editing the special issue, ‘The Natural Turn in Early Modern Russian History’, ВИВЛIОθИКА: E-Journal of Eighteenth-Century Russian Studies 6 (2018) and Perpetual Motion? Transition and Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe & Russia (London: School of Slavonic and East European Studies, UCL, 2011).

She is the author of several articles on medicine in early modern Russia and global history more broadly, including ‘Disentangling Commodity Histories: Pauame and Sassafras in the Early Modern Global World‘, Journal of Global History 15/1 (2020), 1-18, ‘Every Court an Island? Palace Medicine, International Exchanges, and Popular Practices in Early Modern Russia‘, Medizinhistorisches Journal 53/3-4 (2018), 309-330, and ‘Russia and the Medical Drug Trade in the Seventeenth Century’, Social History of Medicine 31/1 (2018), 2–23. Her current monograph project, titled Dangerous Drugs: The Globalisation of Early Modern Russian Medicine, will examine early modern Russia’s connections to the global drug trade. You can view a full list of her academic publications here.

About a week and a half ago, Chase spoke with Professor Griffin over skype about ‘official’ Russian court medicine, the challenges of reconstructing ‘unofficial’ medical practices in the broader population, and the participation of the early modern Russian Empire in global trade networks of medical commodities, which brought products like sassafras and rhubarb to Moscow from as far away as the New World and East Asia.

If you have any thoughts, questions, or comments about this episode, or would like to pitch us an idea for a new episode, feel free to email us at theglobalhistorypodcast@gmail.com, or send us a message on our website’s contact formfacebooktwitter, or instagram. If you would like to consult further resources on global history, feel free to visit our ‘Further Resources‘ page.

*CORRECTION: In the audio, Dr. Griffin’s position is stated as ‘Assistant Professor in the School of Sciences and Humanities, History, Philosophy and Religious Studies’. This has been corrected in the text above.

IMAGE 1: Russia in the Sixteenth Century. ‘Russiae, Moscoviae Et Tartariae Descriptio. Auctore Antonio Ienkensono Anglo, edita Londini Anno 1562 & dedicata illustriss. D. Henrico Sijdneo Walliei presidi. Cum privilegio’, in Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598), Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp: Gielis Coppens van Diest, 1570), page 46. Engraver: Frans Hogenberg. Dimensions: Object Height: 36 cm; Object Width: 45 cm. Scale: 1 : 12,000,000. List Number: 10000.101. Pub List Number: 10000.000. Image Number: 10000101.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 2: View of Moscauw [Moscow] (1575), in Franz Hogenberg and Georg Braun, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, van der Krogt’s XVIII edition (Cologne: Peter von Brachel, 1640), Vol. II, page 47. Description: “The Civitates Orbis Terrarum was the first atlas of world cities and one of the most important books published in the late 16th century. Although led by Braun and Hogenberg, the books were created by a large team of writers, engravers, and artists.” Dimensions: Object Height: 35 cm; Object Width: 50 cm. List Number: 12126.219. Pub List Number: 12126.000. Image Number: 12126219.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 3: ‘Moscovia [Moscow] Vrbs Metropolis Totius Rusiæ Albæ’ (1618), in Franz Hogenberg and Georg Braun, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, van der Krogt’s XVIII edition (Cologne: Peter von Brachel, 1640), Vol. VI, page 54. Dimensions: Object Height: 35 cm; Object Width: 45 cm. List Number: 12126.743. Pub List Number: 12126.000. Image Number: 12126743.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 4: ‘Kremlin. Castle in Moscow’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu i cherez Moskoviiu v Persiiu i obratno [Description of the Journey to Muscovy and through Muscovy to Persia and vice versa] (Saint Petersburg, 1906), translated by A. M. Loviagin. According to Nancy S. Kollmann, this 1906 translation used ‘an edition close to that of 1656’. See Nancy S. Kollmann, ‘Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius‘, in Maria di Salvo, Daniel H. Kaiser, and Valerie A. Kivelson (eds), Word and Image in Russian History: Essays in Honor of Gary Marker (Boston, MA: Academic Studies Press, 2015), pp. 133-146, note 7. BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 5: Adam Olearius, ‘The Church at the White Wall in the Kremlin’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 6: Adam Olearius, ‘The Grand Duke leaves for a pilgrimage’, with a view of Trinity Church (St. Basil’s Cathedral), in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia, downloaded from Wikimedia Commons.

IMAGE 7: Adam Olearius, ‘Muscovite Procession’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 8: Adam Olearius, ‘Church procession’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 9: Adam Olearius, ‘Christening’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 10: Adam Olearius, ‘Wedding’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 11: Adam Olearius, ‘The funeral’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 12: Adam Olearius, ‘Russian women mourn their dead (commemoration of the dead)’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 13: A Western-European Physician at the Russian Court. After Unknown Artist, Portrait of Mark Ridley (1560-1624), physician and mathematician; he became personal physical to the Russian Tsar in the 1590s. Line engraving, circa 1613 (1594). 5 3/8 in. x 3 3/4 in. (136 mm x 94 mm) paper size. NPG D40451. © National Portrait Gallery, London.

IMAGE 14: Magic and Folklore in Russia. Unknown creator, ‘Baba Yaga riding a pig and fighting the infernal Crocodile. Russian lubok (a possible satire of Peter the Great and his wife)’, early 17th century. Image source: Baldina Ol’ga Dmitrievna. Russkie narodnye kartinki (Moskva, Molodaya Gvardiya, 1972), downloaded from Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain.

IMAGE 15: Russia in the Seventeenth Century. ‘Tabvla Rvssiae’ (1665), in Joan Blaeu (1596-1673), Atlas Maior Sive Cosmographia Blaviana, Qua Solvm, Salvm, Coelvm, Accvratissime Describvntvr (Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, 1665). Description: “Blaeu’s 11 volume Atlas Maior is considered by many to be the greatest atlas ever published, both in its own time and even today. It excels in comprehensiveness, engraving, color, and overall production….This copy is from the National Library of Scotland and we are grateful to them for providing scanned images of the atlas as part of a joint project under the guidance of Christopher Fleet, Senior Map Curator at the NLS.” Dimensions: Object Height: 43 cm; Object Width: 55 cm. List Number: 10017.089. Pub LIst Number: 10017.000. Image Number: 104187395.1.jp2. National Library of Scotland / David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 16: Moscow in the Seventeenth Century. ‘Tabulam Vrbis Moskvae’ (1665), in Joan Blaeu (1596-1673), Atlas Maior Sive Cosmographia Blaviana, Qua Solvm, Salvm, Coelvm, Accvratissime Describvntvr (Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, 1665). Dimensions: Object Height: 37 cm; Object Width: 48 cm. List Number: 10017.091. Pub List Number: 10017.000. Image Number: 104187401.1.jp2. National Library of Scotland / David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 17: Group of boyars [Russian nobles], detail from ‘Tabvla Rvssiae’ (1665), in Joan Blaeu (1596-1673), Atlas Maior (1665).

IMAGE 18: Inset view of the port of Archangel [‘Archangelsckagoroda’], detail from ‘Tabvla Rvssiae’ (1665), in Joan Blaeu (1596-1673), Atlas Maior (1665).

IMAGE 19: A tobacco plant, with a smoker of tobacco on the side, in Matthias de L’Obel and Pierre Pena, Stirpium adversaria nova, perfacilis vestigatio luculentaque accessio ad priscorum, praesertim Dioscoridis, et recentiorum materiam medicam. Quibus propediem accedet altera pars (London: T. Purfoot, 1570[71]). Wellcome Library, Record no. 28169657. Photo Number: M0011077. Wellcome Collection, downloaded from Wikimedia Commons. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

IMAGE 20: Introducing sassafras to a Spanish-reading audience. Title Page, Nicolás Monardes, Primera y segunda y tercera partes de la historia medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales que siruen en medicina (Seville: Alonso Escriuano, 1574). Signatura: R/9108, U/5426. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, Biblioteca Nacional de España.

IMAGE 21: Translating sassafras for a Latin-reading audience. Title Page, Nicolás Monardes, De simplicibvs medicamentis ex occidentali India delatis quorum in medicina vsvs est (Antwerp: Ex officina Christophori Plantini, 1574), translated by Carolus Clusius. Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library, downloaded from Biodiversity Heritage Library. Public Domain.

IMAGE 22: Translating sassafras for an Italian-reading audience. Title Page, Delle cose che vengono portate dall’Indie Occidentali pertinenti all’uso della medicina (Venice: Presso di Giordano Ziletti, 1575). Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library, downloaded from Biodiversity Heritage Library. Public Domain.

IMAGE 23: Translating sassafras for an English-reading audience. Title Page, Nicolás Monardes, Ioyful nevves ovt of the newe founde worlde, wherein is declared the rare and singuler vertues of diuerse and sundrie Hearbes, Trees, Oyles, Plantes, and Stones (London: Poules Churche-yearde, by Willyam Norton, 1577), translated by Jhon Frampton. Beinecke Digital Collections, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University.

IMAGE 24: Making sassafras visible. ‘The Sassafras’, in Nicolás Monardes, Ioyful nevves ovt of the newe founde worlde, wherein is declared the rare and singuler vertues of diuerse and sundrie Hearbes, Trees, Oyles, Plantes, and Stones (London: Poules Churche-yearde, by Willyam Norton, 1577), translated by Jhon Frampton, folio 45v. Description: “Monardes was the first to write of sassafras and advocate its use. During the sixteenth century, sassafras was one of the foremost of New World exports and was used in the treatment of syphilis, as well as to cure fevers, including those from malaria. Scientific name: Sassafras officinale.” Technique: Woodcut. Image Height: 11.1 cm. Image Width: 6.7 cm. Page Height: 17.5 cm. Page Width: 13 cm. Materials medium: ink. Materials support: paper. Accession number: 01798. Record number: 01798-1. JCB call number: B577 M735j. Provenance/Donor: Acquired in 1854. ©John Carter Brown Library, Box 1894, Brown University, Providence, R.I. 02912.

IMAGE 25: The beginning of Monardes’ textual description of Sassafras, in Nicolás Monardes, Ioyful nevves ovt of the newe founde worlde (London, 1577), translated by Jhon Frampton, folio 46r. ©John Carter Brown Library, Box 1894, Brown University, Providence, R.I. 02912.

IMAGE 26: Translating sassafras for a French-reading audience. Title page, Nicolás Monardes, Histoire des simples medicamens apportés de l’Ameriqve, in Histoire des drogues, espiceries, et de certains medicamens simples, qui naissent és Indes & en l’Amérique, divisé en deux parties. La première comprise en quatre livres: les deux premiers de M. Garcie du Jardin, le troisiesme de M Christophle de la Coste, & le quatriesme de l’Histoire du Baulme adjoustée de nouveau en ceste seconde edition: où il est prouvé, que nous avons le vray Baulme d’Arabie, contre l’opinion des anciens & modernes. La seconde composée de deux livres de maistre Nicolas Monard, traictant de ce qui nous est apporté de l’Amérique Le tout fidellement translaté en François, par Antoine Colin, maître apothicaire juré de la ville de Lyon, par luy augmenté de beaucoup d’annotations, de diverses drogues estrangeres, & illustrée de plusieurs figures, non encore veuës (Lyon: Jean Pillehotte rue Mercière, 1619), 2nd edition [first edition, 1602]. BU Lyon 1, Université Lyon 1, France.

IMAGE 27: Spanish Florida, an important source of sassafras. ‘Map of the Peninsula of Florida’ (1639?). Attributed to Joan Vinckeboons. Description: “Depths shown by soundings. Shows the Peninsula of Florida and adjacent islands from Rio de las Flores and includes coastline, coastal features, and pictorial representation of palm trees along the Atlantic Coast near St. Augustine with most of geographic names in Spanish. Pen-and-ink and watercolor. Attributed to Joan Vinckeboons by comparison with his other Dutch maps in Henry Harrisse collection.” Medium: 1 ms. map : col., paper backing ; 50 x 71 cm. Call Number/Physical Location: G3291.S12 coll .H3. Library of Congress Control Number: 2003629547. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division, Washington, D.C.

IMAGE 28: Entangled empires. ‘North America divided into its pricipall parts, viz. Arctick lands, New North Wales, N. South Wales, N. Brittain, Canada, N. France, N. Scotland, N. England, N. York, N. Jarsey, Mary-Land, Virginia, Carolina, Florida, Mexico, the islands of New Found Land, California, the Antilles, in which are distinguished the severall countries as they are possessed by the English, Spanish, and French, &c.’ (London: Sold by William Berry at the sign of the globe between Charing Cross and White-Hall, 1680). Description: “Relief shown pictorially. At upper right: Described by Sanson, corrected and amended by William Berry. Prime meridian: Ferro. Includes ill. Sectioned and mounted on cloth backing.” Medium: 1 map : hand col. ; 53 x 86 cm. Call Number/Physical Location: G3300 1680 .B4. Library of Congress Control Number: 2002621143. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division, Washington, D.C.

IMAGE 29: The Tsar, surrounded by nobles. ‘Le Czar faisant des chevaliers le ses ordres’, engraved view from ‘Carte des ordres de chevalerie de Sa Majeste Czarienne, ses titres, l’etat de sa noblesse, profil de son palais et la vue de Moscow’, Tome 4, No. 34 [to accompany] Atlas Historique, Ou Nouvelle Introduction A l’Histoire, aÌ la Chronologie & aÌ la Geìographie Ancienne & Moderne : Repreìsenteìe dans de Nouvelles Cartes, OuÌ l’on remarque l’Etablissement des Etats & Empires du Monde, leur dureìe, leur chute, & leurs differens Gouvernemens … Par Mr. C.***. Avec des Dissertations sur l’Histoire de chaque Etat. Par Mr. Gueudeville. Amsterdam, chez l’Honore & Chatelain. Tome 1-7 (Amsterdam: chez les Freres Chatelain Libraires, 1714). Description: “First edition of this Historical atlas of the world, with new introduction to history and chronology and updated maps, in 7 volumes, dated 1714-1720. By Henri Abraham Chatelain and descriptive text for volumes I-VI, by Nicolas Gueudeville. … Volumes are bound in brown leather covers with gold-embossed on spine and title “Atlas Historique Tom …” stamped in gold. … The maps were accompanied by information pertaining to cosmography, geography, history, chronology, genealogy, topography, heraldry, and costumes of the world. … An ambitious and beautifully-presented work, the Atlas Historique was intended for the general public, fascinated in the early eighteenth century by the recently conquered colonies and the new discoveries. Distant countries, such as the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, Mongolia, China, Japan, Indonesia, etc., take an important place in this work. … Other sections deal with the history of the [E]uropean countries, and covers a wide range of subjects including genealogy, history, cosmography, topography, heraldry and chronology, costume of the world, all illustrated with numerous engraved maps, plates of local inhabitants and heraldic charts of the lineages of the ruling families of the time. … (From Paulus Swaen catalog)”. Dimensions: Object Height: 45 cm; Object Width: 53 cm. List Number: 13272.412. Pub List Number: 13272.000. Image Number: 13272412.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 30: The Tsar’s palace in the eighteenth century. ‘Palais du Czar de Moscovie’, engraved view from ‘Carte des ordres de chevalerie de Sa Majeste Czarienne, ses titres, l’etat de sa noblesse, profil de son palais et la vue de Moscow’ (1714). David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 31: Moscow in the eighteenth century. ‘Vue de la ville de Moscow’, engraved view from ‘Carte des ordres de chevalerie de Sa Majeste Czarienne, ses titres, l’etat de sa noblesse, profil de son palais et la vue de Moscow’ (1714). David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 32: A Changing City. ‘Plan Imperatorskago Stolichnago goroda Moskvy [Moscow]’ (1739), in Russischer Atlas [Atlas Russicus]: Welcher in einer General-Charte und neunzehen Special-Charten das gesamte Russische Reich und dessen angraentzende Laender, nach den Regeln der Erd-Beschreibung und den ne Academie der Wissenschafften (St. Petersburg: Kayserl. Academie der Wissenschafften, 1745), page 22. Authors: Joseph Nicolas de L’Isle, Akademiia nauk SSSR; Academie der Wissenschafften; Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Description: “A detail color plan of Moscow, showing the streets and individual buildings, and rivers…[Part of the ] first atlas of Russia, published by the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, expanding on the cartographic work done previously by Ivan K. Kirilov….Bound in reddish brown contemporary Russian binding in full calf with simple tooling. Atlas was printed in September 1745 in St. Petersburg in Russian, Latin, French and German, with engravers listed as Ellinger, Unversagt, Zubov and Rostovtsev.” Dimensions: Object Height: 43 cm; Object Width: 53 cm. Scale: 1 : 22,260. List Number: 5825.029. Pub List Number: 5825.000. Image number: 5825029. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 33: Russian Imperial Expansion made visible. ‘Imperii Russici Tabula Generalis’, 1734. Creator: Ivan Kirilov (1689-1737). Description: “Map of Russian Empire. Russian title is in upper left and Latin title is in upper right. Shows provinces, major cities, towns, rivers and lakes. Relief shown pictorially. Includes decorative cartouches decorated with landscape and allegorical figures. Kirilov’s map was the first map published in Russia to show the entire country.” Dimensions: Object Height: 57 cm; Object Width: 91 cm. Scale: 1: 12,000,000. Pub List Number: 13253.000. Image Number: 13253000.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 34: Rhubarb: a valuable Asian medical commodity. Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680), ‘Rheubarbarum Verum’, in Kircher, China monumentis : qua sacris quà profanis, nec non variis naturae & artis spectaculis, aliarumque rerum memorabilium argumentis illustrata (Amsterdam: Johannes Janssonius van Waesberge and Elisée Weyerstraet, 1667). Fondo Antiguo de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla, Spain, downloaded from Wikimedia Commons. Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0).

IMAGE 35: The Great Northern Expedition. Sven Larsson Waxell, ‘Bering’s first encounter with Aleuts at Shumagin Island. Drawing by Sven Waxell, the mate of Bering’s ship St. Peter’, circa 1741.

IMAGE 36: Exploring the New World from the West. ‘Carte des Decouv.tes de l’Am.al de Fonte selon la Carte Angloise donnée par l’Ecrivain du Vaisseu la Californie dans son Voyage à la Bay d’Hudson Avec les Terres vuës et reconnues pars les Russes…’ (c. 1752) in Phillipe Bauche, Considerations Geographiques Et Physiques Sur Les Nouvelles Decouvertes Au Nord de La Grande Mer Appellee Vulgairement La Mer Du Sud; avec des cartes, qui y sont relatives … (Paris: Academie Royale des Sciences, 1753). Description: “Color map of the North Pacific and contiguous parts of the Northwest Coast of America and Northeast Coast of Asia. Includes exploration by the Russians up to 1750, and by de Fonte. Shows Bay of the West and the channel for a water course via the Archipel de St. Lazare ou Strait of Anian toward Hudson’s Bay. Above neat line at right: IIe. Carte du Mem. lu a l’Acad. le 9 Aout 1752. Page 13. Includes historical tracks of various voyages”. Dimensions: Object Height: 22 cm; Object Width: 31 cm. Scale: 1 : 30,096,000. List Number: 11780.004. Pub List Number: 11780.000. Image Number: 11780004.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 37: Russian Expansion into Alaska. ‘Nuove Scoperte de’ Russi al nord del Mare del Sud si nell’ Asia’ (1776), in Atlante novissimo, illustrato ed accresciuto sulle osservazioni, e scoperte fatte dai piu celebri e piu recenti geografi (Venice: Antonio Zatta, 1779-1784, 4 tomes), Tome III, page 42. Description: “Engraved hand-colored in outline, double-page map of the northwest coast of North America and northeast Asia including the North Pacific Ocean to the Bering Strait and the Kamchatka Peninsula. Alaska shown by a group of islands off the coast of Russia, identified as Isole Alessiane. There is a notation of the Chinese colony of Fou-Sang in the vicinity of Vancouver Island. Map shows political divisions, cities, towns, coastal towns, mountains and rivers…Bound in half leather marbled covered boards with “Atlante novissi. Venez, 1788 P.A. Zat.” stamped in gold on spine.” Dimensions: Object Height: 31 cm; Object Width: 39 cm. Scale: 1 : 25,000,000. List Number: 11598.240. Pub List Number: 11598.000. Image Number: 11598240.jp2. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

IMAGE 38: Encountering New World peoples. ‘An Aleutian’, in William Alexander (1767-1816), Picturesque Representations of the Dress and Manners of the Russians, Illustrated in Sixty-Four Coloured Engravings, with Descriptions’(London: Goodwin, [1814?]), plate 49. Wellcome Collection. Public Domain.

IMAGE 39: Magic in Siberia. ‘A Bratzkian Schaman, or Female Magician’, in W. Alexander, Picturesque Representations, plate 55. Wellcome Collection. Public Domain.

IMAGE 40: Magic and Healing. Description of ‘A Bratzkian Schaman, or Female Magician’, in W. Alexander, Picturesque Representations, following plate 55. Wellcome Collection. Public Domain.

IMAGE 41: What are the challenges of re-constructing non-‘elite’ ways of knowing? ‘A Russian Peasant’, in W. Alexander, Picturesque Representations, plate 64. Wellcome Collection. Public Domain.

IMAGE 42: River transportation. Adam Olearius, ‘Strug on the Volga’, in Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu (1906 [mid-seventeenth century]). BUK VO Regional Universal Scientific Library, Russia.

IMAGE 43: Overland transportation . ‘Russia: people carrying goods on sledges over the snow’ (London: Alexander Hogg, 1785). Lettering: “Various carriages & sledges used for the conveyance of goods, merchandise, &c. during the winter in Russia. [ ] Engraved for Millar’s New Complete Universal System of Geography; an elegant performance including all the modern discoveries and universally acknowledged to be the best geographical work ever published. Smith sculp [engraving by Smith].” Physical Description: 1 print : engraving ; image 16.4 x 25.8 cm. Reference: Wellcome Library no. 37027i. Wellcome Collection. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

IMAGE 44: Continuing traditions of healing. ‘A lame man being doused in water from a holy spring to procure a miraculous cure’ (1903). Description: “Possibly a scene in Sarepta, which is apparently the name of the German colony at Krasnoarmeisk (Krasnoarmeysk) on the west bank of the Volga near Volgograd (Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad), which has natural mineral waters”. Lettering: “A “miraculous” healing in the Saint Source in Sarapa.” Physical Description: 1 drawing : pen and ink. Reference: Wellcome Library no. 22761i. Wellcome Collection. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s